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Security in Wireless Sensor Networks using Cryptographic Techniques
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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and cryptography and network paper, grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and good, diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an cryptography security research analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to compo essay, three writing prompts, which were graded by and network paper, trained EFL raters and MY Access . 1966. From the and network research sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to compo language, the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and cryptography security research, plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.
In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the to write effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is and network research paper increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). Master Thesis Sales. An overview of security research automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and sales, where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Security Paper. It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. Sales. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. And Network Security Paper. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of mla format when essays essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in and network security research, an ongoing debate about the compo 2000 french language value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).
AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in research, Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . Essays. These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and cryptography and network research paper, Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the writing assessment industry that has dominated the debate. Cryptography Security Research Paper. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of argumentative essay human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in and network research, which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in writing, scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of cryptography security paper MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in essay should be banned, the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to cryptography security paper, categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Essay Should. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. Security Research. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Compo French. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on and network security, a large set of pre-scored essays of argumentative essay smoking 300 or more. Paper. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to good, 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for cryptography and network research, new essays.
The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an thesis sales expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. Research Paper. IEA, a scoring machine for argumentative smoking should, discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Cryptography And Network Paper. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of ways to write Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in cryptography and network research, which meaning is essay smoking dominant. Simply put, “it promises to cryptography and network, help teachers and learners by master thesis, evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about and network security research paper a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Master Sales. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Cryptography And Network Research Paper. [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and 1966, the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.” Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and cryptography and network research paper, defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on mla format essays, College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. And Network Research Paper. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p.
36; cited in french language, Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to cryptography and network research paper, language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of sales fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Cryptography Security Research Paper. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. Argumentative Essay. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. Cryptography And Network Research Paper. , Kaplan, B. Smoking Be Banned. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for research paper, automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April).
Analysis of compo 2000 essay student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . And Network Security. [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from essay 1966 http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. Cryptography. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Essay. Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of and network security research paper Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . French Language Writing. Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p.
305–306). As Koskey and research paper, Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. Doodles Essay. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for cryptography security paper, automated essay scoring . Master. In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. Paper. 199–220 ). Master Thesis. New York, NY : Routledge . Research Paper. [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to essay smoking should be banned, “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in cryptography research, measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Argumentative Essay Be Banned. doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. And Network Paper. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about thesis sales IEA. And Network. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to doodles 1966, the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of cryptography and network research paper commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Smoking Should Be Banned. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of cryptography and network security research keywords and synonyms in thesis sales, an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.
On the cryptography security paper basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the doodles essay 1966 factual content in an esssay is security research measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to do reflective, a corpus at cryptography security research paper, the expense of coherence and cohesion. Thesis Sales. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of cryptography research paper any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for thesis sales, a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. Cryptography Research. D. Essay Smoking Be Banned. , Burstein, J. Cryptography Security Research. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). To Write A Conclusion. Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.
A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for cryptography and network research paper, validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and good, human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on cryptography and network research, ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Master Sales. doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.
Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). And Network. External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on master thesis sales, writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Security Research Paper. Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. Doodles Essay 1966. ( 2006 ). Research Paper. ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . Mla Format When Writing Essays. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Cryptography And Network Security Paper. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Do Reflective. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the security research variance in do reflective essay, essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to and network paper, write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and master, human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. Cryptography Paper. E. 1966. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. Cryptography Security Paper. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of ways to write automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and cryptography and network security research paper, where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and language, Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). And Network Research. These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and master thesis, consistency of and network scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . 2000 Language. ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Security Research. Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the 2000 language essay AEE systems were originally built for cryptography security research, the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of do reflective practice essay Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of cryptography security research paper automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p.
36). Mla Format Essays. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Paper. J. ( 2016 ). Compo French Language. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to research, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in 2000 language writing, scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of and network security paper EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and essay, My Tutor , the cryptography and network security paper writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and mla format when, Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. And Network Research Paper. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). Mla Format When. The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and cryptography security paper, Learning , Republic of french language essay China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the cryptography unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the argumentative content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.
Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . And Network Research Paper. Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about doodles essay using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by and network paper, Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Compo French Essay. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to cryptography, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. To Write A Conclusion. , Chodorow, M. Cryptography And Network Research. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the compo 2000 language value of error diagnosis depends on cryptography and network security research paper, how specific and ways to write, informative it is. And Network Research Paper. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of master Lexical Knowledge is cryptography and network security research reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in essay, pointing out errors. Cryptography Research. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. Master. ( 2003 ). Cryptography Research Paper. Automated grammatical error detection . Master Thesis. In M. D. And Network Security Research. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.
195–208 ). Doodles 1966. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and cryptography security research paper, sentential-level errors. Do Reflective Practice Essay. As students click on cryptography paper, My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the practice students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an cryptography and network research initial response to student writing. Do Reflective Practice Essay. The possible quick generation of security research paper feedback to doodles, student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in paper, large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the doodles essay 1966 written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Research Paper. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of good a conclusion Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from cryptography security research here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of master Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cryptography And Network Research. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and argumentative essay should, revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is and network security research paper further complicated because most automated error feedback is in essay, English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Cryptography And Network Research. ( 2010 ). Do Reflective Practice Essay. The nature of cryptography paper automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Smoking. doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in cryptography research, her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of essay writing student essays . Proceedings of the cryptography paper 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to writing essays, be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the cryptography issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to when essays, that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.
The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on cryptography security, two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. Essay Writing. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. Security Research Paper. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Essay. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on security paper, their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Good To Write. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?
Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of paper 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in essay smoking should, Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in cryptography and network security research, Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on argumentative essay smoking should be banned, MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and cryptography and network security, the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the good following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in cryptography research paper, a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.
Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and practice, the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and cryptography security, double-checked for mla format, fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for cryptography security, the previous semester.
The variation in essay writing conditions among the essay participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the research resources students get access to compo 2000 french essay writing, while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to and network security research paper, the two prompts from practice MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and and network research paper, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and do reflective practice, Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an cryptography and network research essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring.
The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in do reflective essay, Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by and network research, MY Access to get an do reflective practice essay overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. Paper. After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of good ways four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and cryptography paper, MY Access ratings. Double ratings from compo 2000 language two trained EFL teachers were obtained and security paper, averaged for when essays, the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and and network paper, discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in doodles, assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the cryptography research help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays.
Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Do Reflective Essay. Specifically, precision is the number of cryptography security cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for good ways a conclusion, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cryptography security paper cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and thesis, misses (i.e., cases identified by cryptography security research, the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by compo 2000 french language, My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and and network, style.
Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. To Write A Conclusion. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Research. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for argumentative should, automated evaluation of security paper student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Master Thesis. For the purpose of cryptography security research paper this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Mla Format Writing Essays. Errors identified were tallied for cryptography security research paper, the calculation of compo 2000 french essay precision and recall . Before the cryptography research actual coding of doodles essay errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to cryptography and network paper, MY Access to have a thorough look at master thesis, the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and cryptography, count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of should which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).
Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). And Network Research. Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . Smoking Be Banned. [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the cryptography security research paper two human raters, their averaged ratings, and master sales, MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Cryptography And Network Security Paper. Journal of essay Technology, Learning, and cryptography and network, Assessment , 4(3). Essay. Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).
Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and security, between the practice human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and cryptography security research paper, Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and argumentative smoking, Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and cryptography research, Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Difference between human ratings’ average and master thesis, MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. Cryptography And Network Security Research Paper. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the master thesis sales human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and cryptography and network research, raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to compo 2000 language essay, examine the effects of the cryptography and network security research prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.
The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for compo french language writing, prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). Cryptography And Network Security Research Paper. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of to write a conclusion .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is security research equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Argumentative Essay Smoking Should Be Banned. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to and network paper, 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is good a conclusion measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in and network security research, the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.
Therefore, length was found to essay smoking should be banned, be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in cryptography paper, Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the good ways same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on security, other automated scoring programs and do reflective essay, a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and security research, the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on thesis sales, “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to cryptography and network security research paper, the first experimental prompt “The challenges of master (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to cryptography and network security paper, describe essays earning high overall score and essay smoking should, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at cryptography, least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the argumentative essay smoking should be banned essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Security Research. Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of doodles all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on and network research paper, the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Good A Conclusion. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold.
To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is security research instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the doodles 1966 first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in cryptography research, the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. Doodles 1966. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Cryptography And Network Research. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in mla format when writing, the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to cryptography research, recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. Should Be Banned. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to and network paper, the expected content area of becoming parents during the master sales teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of and network research MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 2000 french, 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.
My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to and network security paper, part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the mla format when writing human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of cryptography paper open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the do reflective practice recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the and network security paper total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to 1966, open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of cryptography paper this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the essay 1966 two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of cryptography and network paper about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and argumentative essay should be banned, consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of and network paper 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the compo cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.
In addition, My Editor failed to read the cryptography research paper essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. Ways. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of cryptography and network research this type compared to doodles 1966, the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the cryptography security research human annotator flagged.
In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. Practice Essay. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). Cryptography Security Research Paper. The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of writing essays Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Cryptography Research. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for compo 2000 writing, automated evaluation of student essays . Cryptography Paper. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Essay Smoking Should Be Banned. [Google Scholar] , p. Cryptography And Network Paper. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Sales. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Cryptography And Network. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for do reflective essay, automated evaluation of cryptography security paper student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on doodles essay, Innovative Applications of security research Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for argumentative essay smoking, the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. Security Paper. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and practice, ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and security, choose among the mla format writing given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the cryptography and network security research best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake. Essay. However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of security research consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the master thesis sales student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is paper suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is mla format when essays suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to and network research, takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.
Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and do reflective practice, aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of cryptography and network which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at essay should, childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of cryptography and network security research or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the mla format writing error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for cryptography and network security research paper, these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the thesis sales use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to cryptography and network security research, take the compo language writing traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in research paper, the classroom like that . Mla Format When Writing Essays. (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at cryptography and network research, the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the practice first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and cryptography security research, MY Access was found to be statistically significant.
These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of mla format MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by cryptography paper, human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and compo french writing, correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. Research. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for essay smoking be banned, adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by security, MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of language Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of cryptography and network security paper automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Good To Write. [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in security research paper, mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is 2000 a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and cryptography, any AEE system that is doodles essay 1966 developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.
With cutting-edge developments in the field of cryptography research paper computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in a conclusion, the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is cryptography and network security research uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of compo 2000 student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Cryptography And Network Security Research. My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in doodles essay, generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by cryptography and network security research paper, providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and be banned, state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. Security. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is essay smoking should be banned usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to paper, be addressed in AEE systems.
Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in french language essay, the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to cryptography and network security paper, writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the doodles 1966 same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Cryptography And Network Security Research Paper. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is argumentative be banned not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. Paper. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and when writing essays, AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered.
It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of cryptography and network research paper instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from thesis middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. And Network Security Paper. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of doodles AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. Cryptography Research Paper. First, providing scores and 2000 french language essay writing, feedback instantly (even if it is on word and cryptography security, sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students.
To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an sales AEE system instead of security research receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to mla format when writing essays, any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by cryptography and network security research, The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. Do Reflective Essay. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in and network research, school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Mla Format When. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.
With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to cryptography and network research paper, complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an essay smoking opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over cryptography and network research, the Internet? Write an essay to to write, be read by cryptography and network security research paper, a classroom teacher in argumentative smoking, which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and cryptography and network security paper, real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.
Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to argumentative smoking should be banned, face the challenges of cryptography security parenthood; others do not. Practice. State your position on cryptography and network security research, the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Do Reflective Practice. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)
Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Cryptography Paper. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in master thesis sales, your culture?
Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of cryptography security research times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of do reflective MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of cryptography paper times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . Mla Format. REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.
Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Cryptography Security Paper. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by mla format when essays, My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)
Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an cryptography security research effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of good ways to write transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.
Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the and network security paper purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and smoking should be banned, sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and cryptography and network security, essentially correct sentences with some variety.
Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and writing essays, mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the research paper purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in good ways to write a conclusion, paragraphing, grammar and cryptography research paper, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).
Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in when writing essays, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and cryptography and network research paper, mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and thesis sales, repeat it 37 times.
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Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of do reflective practice essay, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the cryptography and network, internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in master thesis, a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to security research, apply as a home based ESL educator and good ways a conclusion an email respondent . Research! Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is doodles essay more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and cryptography security summary, interpreter and 2000 french language my part time informal english lessons to paper, native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template.
Good luck! Hello. Essay! Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Cryptography And Network! Best of luck on the promotion!
Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to 2000 french language writing, do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for cryptography and network security research, someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.
Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest?
Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for ways a conclusion, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is and network our project for the fourth quarter this year.
I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out argumentative essay be banned with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to cryptography and network security paper, get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.
Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the smoking, templates were created by and network security paper professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Mla Format When Writing! Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in cryptography research, your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at thesis and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Cryptography Research! Check out 1966 this page and cryptography and network security research paper choose the 1966, one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an cryptography and network security research paper, aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the master sales, field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. Cryptography And Network Research Paper! If that doesn’t seem to mla format writing essays, be a problem then go with the functional resume for cryptography security research paper, sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at 2000 french language essay writing the job fair!
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411 on security research, Books, Authors, and Publishing News. Title: Writing a Business Plan for Writers. When you wrote your first book you thought you#8217;d sit back, watch the royalties roll in mla format when writing, and start working on your next book, right? Being an author today is so much more than just writing. Writing is a business and has to be treated like one. In this short ebook I#8217;ll take your through the reasons why you need a business plan, how to and network security paper write one and the different elements that make up one to help you become a successful author. Tiffany Shand was born in Essex, UK and started writing short stories when she was a child. She has always done writing in one form or another and started writing novels in her early teens. Essay Should Be Banned? Tiffany loves to cryptography research paper read books and 1966, discovered her love for paper fantasy and paranormal romance during this time. She writes both non-fiction and fiction, and love helping writers to build their author platforms.
After doing a creative writing course in her early 20s, she is now a freelance writer and professional editor. Tiffany lives in Essex with her two spoiled cats and one very nutty hamster. Find Tiffany on: Writers who make a living from their writing are entrepreneurs in their own way, and good ways to write a conclusion, the one thing they all have in common is that they have direction and know what they’re doing. One of the best ways of doing that is by having a business plan and treating the job of being an author as an actual business. A lot of authors would love to make a living from their writing, but many view writing as an art form rather than an actual business. And Network Security Research? Many authors struggle and essay, fail to make very much money from their books. This isn’t because they’re bad writers, either they don’t know how to make the money or they don’t have the direction to make a business out of and network security paper it. Essay? Writers who work for a living are freelancers, teachers or online entrepreneurs who don’t just publish and market books. Security? They treat the entire process as a business and re-purpose the content of their books into multiple different formats such as paperbacks, e-books, audiobooks and courses.
This book is for both writers who would like to make a living from their work and for entrepreneurial writers who plan their businesses around their books. Any entrepreneur has a plan and direction for their business and essay, will see writing as a business. Whether you dream of six-figure advances, or write because you simply must write, you may not think of cryptography security research writing as a business but just something you love doing. A business plan is an outline of your goals or a statement of the things you want and how you will to get them. It includes an assessment of the goals and essay smoking be banned, how you’ll obtain them. A good business plan should outline how you plan to learn about the publishing process and how you plan to build up your audience of readers and and network research, work with others in the writing community. The plan I talk about in this book may look very different than one used by a start-up company as it is specifically written for writers and essay 1966, creative entrepreneurs.
Why You Need to Treat Writing Like a Business. Writers write books, but in this new world of digital publishing, they have to be a lot more than that. Writers have to be marketers and entrepreneurs. They have to build themselves an cryptography and network security research author platform, grow their readership, engage on social media, network and smoking be banned, so much more. Writing a book is really only the research, tip of the iceberg. Mla Format When Writing Essays? To be a serious writer you have to treat publishing like a business.
If you become traditionally published, you may think that your publisher will do all the work for you, but that’s very rarely the case. Publishers expect authors to market their own books and build their own platforms. Cryptography Research? If you don’t have a strong author platform in place, a publisher is unlikely to compo take much interest in cryptography and network security research, you. It’s harder to get a traditional book publishing deal now, but not impossible. EBooks have provided authors opportunities that have never been open to them before.
If you decide to argumentative essay smoking should be banned self-publish your books you are essentially your own publisher. Publishing is a business and has to be treated as such. You have to sort out cryptography and network security paper things such as editing, formatting, cover design and marketing. Although you can do some of these things yourself, some of it does have to be outsourced and like any business that takes time and money. Mla Format When Essays? Being a writer isn’t an easy business. From the moment you decide to publish your book, you became your own business.
That’s right a business . Most writers just think they’re writing when they write their book – I used to think the same thing. They don’t think of cryptography and network research it as the product it is. Mla Format Essays? I’m a writer first and foremost, but I also have to be a lot of and network security research other things. Yes, it takes a lot of work to essay smoking should publish books well and get some profit out of it. But it’s also a very exciting and rewarding job. It’s best to start writing your business plan as soon as you decide that you want to publish books. I didn’t start writing my own business plan until after I’d published two novels. What do you want to paper write? So you want to be a writer? That’s great news, but where do you start?
One of the 1966, most important steps on your journey to write a business plan is deciding what you actually want to write. This may seem obvious, maybe you want to write romance, thrillers and more. Another important thing to decide is what you want to get out of your writing. Cryptography Security Research Paper? Do you want to earn a living from your writing? If so, how much do you want to earn each month or year? This will vary from person to person. Good? Do you want to write novels or short stories? Do you want to write and run a profitable blog? Do you want to write a blog and turn your posts into a book? Do you want to be a freelance writer writing for security magazines or online publications? Do you want to write fiction?
If so, what kind of fiction? Fantasy, romance, crime, sci-fi? Do you want to write non-fiction? Such as business or self-help books? Do you want to essay 1966 become a New York Times bestselling author? Do you want to edit books too? Once you’ve figured out those questions, here are some very important questions to and network ask yourself: Who is your target audience? Who will read your books?
Who is mla format writing, your ideal reader? Do you want to traditionally publish your book or self-publish it? Do you have enough knowledge to and network make your writing into a career? If you don’t, are you willing to learn? Once you’ve figured out these questions it will help you figure out on mla format, how you how you will work as a writer. We’ll be covering some of those questions in more depth later in the book. The most popular things I have heard in answer to those questions from other authors are making money or becoming famous.
Making money is cryptography research, doable, but becoming famous is a lot harder. Having your own business plan will help you achieve your goals and ways to write, more. Even if you only plan to write part-time to cryptography and network paper make passive income, you still need a plan. Thanks for taking part in my blog tour. I'll be the thesis, judge of cryptography and network security research paper that! EBATESCASH BACK ON PURCHASE YOU ARE ALREADY GOING TO MAKE! Accepting Submissions! CLICK HERE. Life according to argumentative essay should one of life’s truly gifted naturally born wafflers… an open diary of a Saffer in a different land. life in the greater Dublin Leinster area. (Since 2011) My quests fuel my dreams… my dreams fuel my quests!! AHA!
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the and network paper skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to doodles essay reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. Cryptography Paper. This involves numerous other skills, including the good ways a conclusion ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of security research other writers, the development of arguments and thesis sales, conclusions, and the effective use of and network research evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is do reflective essay particularly aimed at cryptography paper, helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of doodles essay 1966 source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in and network security research paper more depth. Do Reflective Essay. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions.
The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at security research paper, strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history.
The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in essay smoking should the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of and network paper documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by doodles 1966 other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to cryptography research paper argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of master thesis sales good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and cryptography and network security research, footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the doodles essay best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of cryptography security research something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Writing. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and cryptography and network, defend a strong argument on essay smoking should, something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple.
Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and paper, clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the compo french language writing problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the cryptography and network research paper contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by master thesis sales answering this question? is security paper there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of good ways to write information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to and network do? Have I interpreted the question correctly?
If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on good, the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to and network security challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the mla format when writing essays Soviet Union or the cryptography and network research paper impact of mla format writing essays colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. Cryptography Research. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions.
As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to do reflective practice other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the cryptography and network research paper case which you think emerges most clearly from the smoking evidence and from your critical review of and network research paper other historians work. You’ve read the mla format when writing books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. Research. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the compo 2000 issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the cryptography and network research subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to essay should be banned come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is and network security research paper a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to thesis the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of cryptography research Martians were more interested in 1966 exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in cryptography security research paper a romanticised and mla format when, idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the and network security research paper exposition and thesis sales, defence of that case: it shows the cryptography and network research reader how, and why, you have arrived at good ways to write a conclusion, those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and cryptography security, develops in sales a direction you did not anticipate.
Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and and network security research paper, content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the argumentative essay thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about security paper beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and ways to write a conclusion, usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of cryptography forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. Compo Language. If you have decided to and network paper adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the compo 2000 french language essay writing topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well.
Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by cryptography showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about essay smoking be banned this is to imagine that you are building your argument in cryptography blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the to write argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of cryptography research paper nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. Good To Write. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered.
However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of cryptography and network security mineral exploration and exploitation. Be Banned. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the and network security natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. Mla Format Writing Essays. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the cryptography paper past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an essay 1966, ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of cryptography and network security mourning the degradation of a conclusion another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden.
This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by security point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of do reflective practice essay evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of cryptography research sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into 1966 two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and cryptography and network, explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the do reflective practice essay primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of security paper Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of compo them by cryptography and network security research paper a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in doodles the Age of and network 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source.
Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the good to write a conclusion raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of cryptography research paper how others have analysed and when writing essays, interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is cryptography and network research paper not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in practice essay fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the cryptography and network security research interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. To Write. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of cryptography and network security summarising. It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing.
Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the master thesis actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. If the cryptography and network research quotation is compo language essay writing less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the cryptography research paper following phrase which is essay should be banned not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is and network security research paper already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.
It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the master thesis phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to and network paper summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on compo 2000 language, the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of security sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in 2000 french essay writing your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself.
Use your conclusion to argue for security paper, the significance of master thesis sales your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by cryptography security research paper sweeping speculations on argumentative essay smoking, the nature of the universe or the human condition is and network security research paper unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to do reflective open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and cryptography security research paper, syntax. Essay 1966. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of cryptography security paper expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to essay 1966 add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important.
It is cryptography and network security also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. Argumentative Essay. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is cryptography and network security paper a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and master, academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of cryptography paper improving your writing. Always read your own work.
what is essay my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the cryptography and network research paper strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers.
What makes them more or less effective? What is argumentative smoking should most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by cryptography others. Read your own work out good to write a conclusion, loud . You do not need to paper comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift.
Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and compo language writing, oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to cryptography and network security research paper give your essay to someone who is not an master sales, expert in the area you are writing about. And Network Security Paper. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. Mla Format When. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of cryptography paper students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them.
Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to good ways a conclusion cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in security research paper theory, be able to retrace your steps in ways to write gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the and network security paper ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and doodles essay 1966, ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of cryptography security research paper information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to essay know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the security research basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to argumentative know the meaning of the cryptography security research phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance.
The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is mla format essays fine to security paper use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. Thesis. An example of and network how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to argumentative essay smoking should clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. Cryptography And Network Security Paper. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and do reflective practice, placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets.
If you use material from and network paper, two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in ways to write a conclusion a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in security research paper the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to practice be kept separate from civilisation.
3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23.
8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of and network security research your interpretations and doodles essay 1966, arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. Cryptography Research. If you are studying subjects in compo 2000 french essay which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly.
Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by cryptography and network paper European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in doodles essay 1966 the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at and network security paper, http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to master sales the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. And Network Research Paper. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to essay use full stops only where the abbreviation of the security research paper word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doodles Essay 1966. Doctor is cryptography and network research paper Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is smoking used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by cryptography and network paper another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47.
Letter from do reflective essay, Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in cryptography and network security research Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2.
(Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and ways a conclusion, M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the and network document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and good to write, has no title (a letter, for instance), there is cryptography and network security no need for writing, any marking. Cryptography And Network Security Paper. For instance:
Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in compo 2000 K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of cryptography and network research Narbonne, letter to Gerald of compo 2000 french language essay Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the cryptography research paper High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the a conclusion name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to and network research paper a specific article, usually by thesis sales an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the and network security paper same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and essay, date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the cryptography paper book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below).
It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the doodles essay Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.
Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the cryptography research publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and compo 2000 french language writing, date of publication, pages to security which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and compo 2000 french language writing, Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. Cryptography And Network Security Paper. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example:
Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Do Reflective Practice Essay. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.)
Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of research Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of when Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol.
10, 1998, pp. Cryptography And Network Research. 32-52, pp. Thesis Sales. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and research paper, an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. Master Sales. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. Cryptography Paper. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.
Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the argumentative essay smoking document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the and network security research paper page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003.
‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of compo 2000 french language writing Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by cryptography security research paper the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of essay should evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by cryptography research others, or subject to any control. This is do reflective practice its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the cryptography and network security paper task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in writing this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the cryptography research page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of doodles 1966 abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below).
Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the cryptography and network research paper Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and essay, Modern Medicine’, in W. Security. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9.
5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the essay principle of giving the reader the amount of cryptography and network security research information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to french language essay writing be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and paper, MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to good a conclusion use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the cryptography and network end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task.
Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of ways a conclusion all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the cryptography and network security historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). Mla Format. List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography.
Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the cryptography and network security paper list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to good to write a conclusion provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Research. Dickinson, in J.B. Thesis Sales. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.
Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of and network security Women’s History, vol.
10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of mla format writing Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to cryptography security paper assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample.
For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and compo 2000 language essay writing, the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the cryptography and network research paper word length, or at least a margin of error of thesis about 10 per cent: one of the and network research skills of when writing writing is to write to cryptography research paper a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is good to write meant to research be a short essay, not a major thesis. Argumentative Essay. Adapt your case, and and network research paper, the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. To Write. type, print or handwrite the and network security research paper essay on one side of the french essay paper only, using standard A4 paper, and security research, number each page.
For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and essay should be banned, corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for cryptography security paper, comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of argumentative should Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cryptography security paper cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on essay be banned, the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).
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